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Physics and Chemistry of the Earth xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx 



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Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/pce 



Perceptions on greywater reuse for home gardening activities in two rural 
villages of Fetakgomo Local Municipality, South Africa 

Makgalake P. Radingoana 3 ’*, Timothy Dube c , Margaret H.N. Mollel , Josephine M. Letsoalo 3 

a Department of Geography & Environmental Studies, University of Limpopo, Private Bag XI106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa 
b Department of Water and Sanitation, University of Limpopo, Private Bag XI106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa 
c Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag XI7, Bellville, 7535, South Africa 


ARTICLE INFO 


ABSTRACT 


Keywords: 

Food security 
Fruit trees 
Greywater 
Home gardening 
Livelihoods 
Rural communities 
Vegetables 
Water scarcity 


Greywater reuse has been adopted worldwide as an alternative source to freshwater and has been found to 
contribute to the household food supply. In this study, we assess the greywater reuse for home gardening in two 
rural communities (Ga-Seroka and Ga-Nkwana) in Limpopo Province, South Africa, using a mixed methods 
approach (Qualitative and Quantitative). A total of 95 and 87 households were randomly selected in Ga-Seroka 
and Ga-Nkwana villages, respectively. Field surveys from the selected households were gathered using struc¬ 
tured questionnaires and then analysed using statistical package software. The study showed that 66% of the 
respondents from Ga-Nkwana village reused their greywater for home gardening when compared to 59% from 
Ga-Seroka. Thirty-nine percent (39%) of Ga-Nkwana and 40% of Ga-Seroka respondents used this greywater for 
irrigating fruit trees, whereas 24% and 22% in Ga-Nkwana and Ga-Seroka villages, respectively, used it for 
irrigating vegetables that are not eaten raw. Many respondents (73% and 85%) in Ga-Nkwana and Ga-Seroka 
villages mentioned that, they were not aware of problems associated with greywater reuse, hence, they continue 
using it for home gardening. We, therefore, concluded that although greywater reuse for home garden irrigation 
is practised in the two communities, its utilization is still with caution. 


1. Introduction 

Water is a scarce resource and ensuring sustainable supply, espe¬ 
cially in view of possible climate change impacts, has become a sig¬ 
nificant challenge globally (Lundqvist et al., 2005; Jenerette and 
Larsen, 2006; Abusam, 2008). Africa is one of the most vulnerable 
continents to climate change and variability, due to its high low 
adaptive capacity (IPCC, 2007; Epule et al., 2017). Vulnerability in 
Africa of is aggravated by climate change and variability, especially 
semi-arid and arid areas, which promotes strong winds and high eva¬ 
poration rates, as well as low levels of economic development that 
hamper community adaptive capacity to the associated impacts 
(Bruckner, 2012). In addition, these arid like conditions are char¬ 
acterised with erratic rainfall patterns which impact negatively on the 
poor communities. For instance, climate trends show a gradual shift 
towards greater extremes in selected parts of southern Africa, which 
have increasingly become drier, and the wetter tropical areas witnes¬ 
sing intensified precipitation and flooding (Hulme et al., 2001). Ac¬ 
cording to FAO (2016), on a continental scale, 86% of inventoried 
abstractions are used for agriculture, which is a value higher than the 


global agricultural water withdrawal (70%). South Africa is among the 
14 African water-scarce countries, marked with high spatiotemporal 
rainfall variability (Earle, 2005). Average annual rainfall for South 
Africa is approximately 454 mm when compared to an overall global 
average of 860 mm (Earle, 2005). It is unpredictable and unreliable, 
largely influenced by moist air moving from the Indian Ocean in the 
east and south east. The erratic nature of this rainfall, therefore, affects 
agriculture, and consequently household food security, especially in 
most developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Faced by increasing 
demands for freshwater supplies to sustain the rising population, many 
African countries are embarking on large engineering projects, such as 
dam construction, water diversion, and greywater reuse to secure their 
immediate needs. Amongst the listed project endeavours, greywater 
reuse provides the most cheaply and lucrative alternative source of 
water for home gardening amongst the rural poor. Greywater eases 
pressure on sources of potable water as it can be used for flushing 
toilets, irrigation of gardens, lawns, shrubs and trees, and dust control. 
Besides, greywater reuse in agriculture fits well with the concepts of 
Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan), which seek to prevent pollution and 
diseases, by managing human urine and faeces as a resource rather than 


* Corresponding author. 

E-mail address: pabalelo.radingoana@ul.ac.za (M.P. Radingoana). 
https://doi.Org/10.1016/j.pce.2019.02.009 

Received 16 March 2018; Received in revised form 18 January 2019; Accepted 17 February 2019 
1474-7065/ © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 


Please cite this article as: Makgalake P. Radingoana, et al., Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, https://doi.Org/10.1016/j.pce.2019.02.009 



















M.P. Radingoana, et al 


Physics and Chemistry of the Earth xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx 


waste, through the recovery and recycling of the nutrients (Winblad 
et al., 2004). It is an established practice in a minority of households, 
especially in low-income settlements where water availability remains a 
challenge coupled with financial pressure (Rodda et al., 2010). How¬ 
ever, knowledge on greywater reuse in developing countries like South 
Africa is poorly documented; most literature available is largely from 
the developed world. The transferability of these methods to the African 
settings remains sketchy. 

For instance, in South Africa, rural communities are largely affected 
by these challenges (StatsSA Community Survey, 2016). In Fetakgomo 
municipality alone, a total of 133 106 households are unable to access 
water, due to illegal water connections, limited communal taps, ageing 
infrastructure, drought, the topography of the area, and insufficient 
bulk water supply (Fetakgomo-Tubatse IDP, 2018/19). Most farming is 
done at a subsistence level and water scarcity, as well as lack of in¬ 
vestment on irrigation, is some of the major hindrances (FLM IDP, 
2015/16). The aim of the study was to, therefore, assess greywater 
reuse for household home gardening as an alternative mechanism to 
improve food security in two rural communities in Limpopo, South 
Africa. The two communities were chosen based on limited access to 
running water and the community members still supplement their daily 
diet with subsistence agricultural produce. 

2. Materials and methods 

2.1. Study area 

Limpopo is the northern most province of South Africa, having in¬ 
ternational borders with Botswana, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. 
Fetakgomo Local Municipality is found within Sekhukhune District 
Municipality which is one of the five district municipalities in the 
province (Fig. 1). The municipality falls within category B4, regarded as 
those municipalities which are mainly rural, located in economically 


depressed areas. The municipality has a spatial coverage of 110 475 ha 
and is divided into 13 ward s, as well as 4 nodal points namely: Atok, 
Apel, Mphanama and Strydkraal (Fetakgomo IDP, 2015/16). 

The Municipality is dominated by traditional land ownership with a 
population of 93 814 people that reside in 87 villages with a total of 
22 851 households (StatsSA, 2011). Like most rural municipalities in 
the country, Fetakgomo is characterised by a weak economic base, poor 
infrastructure, major service backlogs, dispersed human settlements 
and high poverty levels (Fetakgomo IDP, 2015/16). The study was 
conducted in two villages in the Fetakgomo Local Municipality, which 
are Ga-Seroka village consisting of 2 381 households and Ga-Nkwana 
village with 1 960 households (Fetakgomo IDP, 2015/16). Fetakgomo 
Local Municipality is characterised with semi-arid conditions with 
rainfall patterns highly variable. The municipality receives its rainfall in 
summer (October-March), with an average annual rainfall of 51 mm. 

2.2. Sampling techniques 

The study adopted a mixed research approach. The approach was 
chosen because it helps to expand the scope or breadth of research to 
offset the weaknesses of either of the approaches when used alone 
(Rossman and Wilson, 1991). The mixed methods procedure involved 
collecting, analysing, and “mixing” both quantitative and qualitative 
research methods in a single study to understand a research problem 
(Creswell, 2012). From a sampling frame of 87 villages in Fetakgomo 
Local Municipality, with a population of 93 814 people and a total of 22 
851 households (StatsSA, 2011), two villages, which are Ga-Nkwana 
and Ga-Seroka were purposefully selected. Ga-Seroka village is a rural 
settlement; however, although Ga-Nkwana village is also rural, it has 
been identified as a potential growth point. Ga-Nkwana village had 1 
960 households and a population of 7 429 while Ga-Seroka village had 
2 381 households and a population of 6 956 people. The web-based 
Raosoft sample size calculator was used to obtain a sample of 78 



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M.P. Radingoana, et al 


Physics and Chemistry of the Earth xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx 


households in Ga-Nkwana village and 95 households in Ga-Seroka vil¬ 
lage, at 95 % confidence level with 10 % and 11 % margin of error for 
both villages, respectively. 

The systematic random sampling method was used (Equation 1) 
where the K th value represented the sampling interval or the skip. In 
this case, the K th value was obtained when the total number of house¬ 
holds in each village was divided by its sample size. The K th value was 
25 for each village. The 1st household was randomly selected and 
thereafter every 25th household was selected. 


where: K th is the sampling interval 

N is the population size and 
n is the sample size 

2.3. Data collection 


Table 1 

Demographic characteristics of respondents. 




Ga-Nkwana (%) 

Ga-Seroka (%) 

Gender 

Male 

55 

54 


Female 

45 

46 

Age (Years) 

< 25 

5 

15 


26-35 

15 

19 


36-45 

43 

23 


45 + 

35 

43 

Educational levels 

None 

15 

17 


Primary 

4 

9 


Secondary 

26 

46 


Tertiary 

28 

28 

Employment level 

Employed 

51 

26 


Unemployed 

13 

41 


Self-Employed 

14 

16 


Pensioner 

22 

17 


Data was collected by means of 173 self-administered structured 
questionnaires, which were composed of both open-ended and close- 
ended questions. Open-ended questions allow the respondents to an¬ 
swer in their own words, thus, they provide richer and more valuable 
information. The key informants in the study were the Ga-Nkwana and 
Ga-Seroka villages’ royal council committee members, as well as a re¬ 
presentative from the Water Service Authority of Fetakgomo Local 
Municipality. Field observations were conducted during data collection 
and pictures of how greywater reuse was taken. 

2.4. Data analysis 

Close-ended responses on the reuse of greywater for home gar¬ 
dening activities were analysed, using a Statistical Package for the 
Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 23. This was done to obtain the 
interrelationship of responses to different questions. Responses on the 
communities’ perceptions on the reuse of greywater were analysed by 
going through all the open-ended responses and manually coding si¬ 
milar or related responses in order to generalise on their responses and 
develop suggestions and recommendations. 

A Chi-Square Test was also further implemented in order to assess 
whether greywater reuse had the potential to improve household food 
security in the two villages. Chi-Square was computed as following: 


where: X 2 is the Chi-Square 

X is the ‘sum of 
O is the frequencies observed 
E is the frequencies expected. 

For this study, Chi-Square was only used to test the association 
between question 48 (Have you ever reused greywater in your house¬ 
hold) and question 55 (Do you think the reuse of greywater will in¬ 
crease the amount of food you produce) of the questionnaire. 

3. Results 

3.1. Demographic characteristics 

The respondents were rural male and female in the study area. The 
results show that 55 and 54% of the respondents were males while 45 
and 46% being females in Ga-Nkwana and Ga-Seroka villages, respec¬ 
tively (Table 1). Although a high percentage of respondents were males 
in both villages, most of them reported that their spouses are the ones 
focusing on the home gardens. Limpopo Province has more females at 


53.30% as compared to males at 46.70% (StatsSA, 2011). 

A large proportion (43%) of respondents in Ga-Nkwana village were 
within the age range of 36 - 45 years, while in Ga-Seroka village, 43% 
of the respondents were above 45 years. In Ga-Nkwana village, 26% 
and 28% of the respondents had secondary and tertiary qualifications, 
respectively, while 46% and 28% of the respondents in Ga-Seroka vil¬ 
lage attended secondary and tertiary level. Illiteracy levels were found 
to be high in Ga-Seroka village, as compared to Ga-Nkwana village 
(Table 1). A high percentage of respondents (51%) in Ga-Nkwana vil¬ 
lage were employed whereas 26% of the respondents in Ga-Seroka 
village were unemployed. It was observed that educated people did not 
reuse their greywater when compared to uneducated people in both 
communities. Educated respondents had better-paying jobs as com¬ 
pared to the uneducated resulting in them having sewage systems in 
their homes whilst the uneducated reused their greywater onsite. 

3.2. Greywater reuse 

Fifty three percent (53%) of the respondents from Ga-Nkwana vil¬ 
lage reused greywater in their household while 47% of the remaining 
respondents did not reuse their greywater. In Ga-Seroka village, 61% of 
the respondents reused their greywater in their households, while 39% 
of the respondents did not reuse their greywater. Greywater could be 
particularly useful for irrigation of subsistence crops, such as African 
Leafy Vegetables (ALVs), which are consumed across Africa (Van 
Rensburg et al., 2007); however, its effects on germination and seedling 
growth in these species are presently unknown (Lubbe et al., 2016). 
Furthermore, reuse of untreated greywater does contain pathogens, 
metals, and organic chemicals that might impact soils and/or plants 
(Finley et al., 2009). Its elevated salinity, pH and boron content can 
adversely impact soil in the long term (Finley et al., 2009; Al- 
Hamaiedeh and Bino, 2010; Misra et al., 2010; Rodda et al., 2011). 
Important parameters to consider for the sustainability of greywater 
reuse are its pH, electrical conductivity, suspended solids, heavy metals, 
faecal coliform, Escherichia coli, dissolved oxygen, biological and 
chemical oxygen demands, total nitrogen and total phosphorus (Dixon 
et al., 1999a; Birks and Hills, 2007; Erikkson et al., 2002). However, 
since greywater contains macronutrients, particularly nitrogen and 
phosphorus, the availability of these nutrients in the right quantities 
may benefit plant growth. Most importantly, chemical and physical 
characteristics of greywater are quite variable among households, due 
to the type of detergents used, type of goods being washed, lifestyle and 
other practices followed at household levels (Pinto et al., 2010). 

3.2.1. Uses of greywater 

From the 41 households (53%) in Ga-Nkwana village, 27 


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Physics and Chemistry of the Earth xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx 


70 



Irrigation Washing cars House decoration Other uses 

Reuses of greywater 


Fig. 2a. Greywater uses in Ga-Nkwana and Ga-Seroka villages. 


households (66%) reused their greywater for irrigation, while 3 
households (7%) used it to wash cars (Fig. 2a). Two (2) households (i.e. 
5%) used their greywater for traditional house decoration whereas 9 
households (22%) used their greywater for other uses (Fig. 2a). 

Out of the 58 households (61%) in Ga-Seroka village that reused 
greywater, 34 households (59%) used their greywater for irrigation 
purposes, while 6 households (10%) used it for washing their cars 
(Fig. 2a). Households reusing greywater for house decoration were 16 
(28%), while 2 households (3%) used their greywater for other uses. 

3.2.2. Types of plants irrigated with greywater 

The respondents in Ga-Nkwana and Ga-Seroka villages used their 
greywater to irrigate vegetables (A), fruit trees (B), and flowers (C) 
(Fig. 2b). 

Thirty-nine percent (39%) of respondents in Ga-Nkwana village 
used their greywater to irrigate fruit trees, while 24% of the re¬ 
spondents irrigated their vegetables with greywater. In comparison, 
40% of the respondents in Ga-Seroka village reused their greywater to 
irrigate fruit trees, while 22% of the respondents used their greywater 
to irrigate vegetables. Twenty percent (20%) of the respondents used 
their greywater to irrigate their flowers followed by 15% of the 


respondents who irrigated their crops with greywater. The remaining 
2% of the respondents used their greywater for irrigating other non¬ 
fruit plants (Fig. 3). 

Similarly, twenty percent (20%) of the respondents in Ga-Seroka 
village irrigated their crops with greywater followed by 16% of the 
respondents who used it to irrigate flowers. Two percent (2%) of the 
respondents in Ga-Seroka village used greywater to irrigate other plants 
(Fig. 3). However, the differences in percentages for irrigating different 
plants between the two villages are not that much. Respondents from 
both villages also mentioned that they do not irrigate all their vege¬ 
tables with greywater, rather only those that are not eaten raw. They 
further mentioned that although they irrigate with greywater, they also 
alternate it with freshwater, especially when available because they do 
not know the effects of greywater on their crops and vegetables, espe¬ 
cially when they consume them raw. 

3.3. Perceptions on the reuse of greywater 

The respondents in both villages reused their greywater with cau¬ 
tion as they did not know the effects it might have on their produce. 
Seventeen percent (17%) and 15% of the respondents in Ga-Nkwana 



Fig. 2b. Vegetables (A), fruit trees (B), and flowers (C) irrigated with greywater in Ga-Seroka (A&B) and Ga-Nkwana (C) villages. 


4 























































































































M.P. Radingoana, et al 


Physics and Chemistry of the Earth xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx 



Crops Flowers Fruit trees Vegetables Other 

Plants irrigated with greywater 


Fig. 3. Plants irrigated with greywater. 


and Ga-Seroka villages respectively, indicated that they do not irrigate 
any plants with greywater from bathtubs because it might have too 
many detergents that could kill plants, but instead they use water from 
washing dishes and clothes, especially the water that has been used to 
rinse the dishes and clothes. Although the respondents used greywater 
from bathing and doing laundry, they did so with caution. Moreover, 
the respondents used greywater from these sources mostly for irrigating 
mature fruit trees as it killed small plants while on the other side it 
acted as a pesticide and repelled some of the insect-eating plants. 
Furthermore, kitchen greywater was only used on vegetables that were 
not to be eaten raw, in order to cook off any chemical that might be 
found on the harvested vegetables. In addition to irrigating vegetables 
with kitchen greywater, they alternated greywater irrigation with po¬ 
table water irrigation when water was available in order to minimise 
the unknown effects of greywater on the vegetables. 

3.4. Potential of greywater reuse to improve household food security 

A Pearson Chi-Square test was conducted to assess whether reusing 
greywater for irrigating gardens can improve the amount of produce 
made and household food security (Table 2). The Pearson Chi-Square 
value for the association between greywater reuse for irrigation and 
produce made was obtained as 52.028 a with 8 degrees of freedom and a 
significance probability of less than 0.001 in Ga-Nkwana village 
whereas it was obtained as 61.772 a with 2 degrees of freedom and a 
significant probability of less than 0.001 in Ga-Seroka village, in¬ 
dicating a very highly significant result in both villages. 

4. Discussion 

Reuse of greywater to supplement freshwater is becoming of great 
interest specifically in developing countries where the rural 


Table 2 

Pearson Chi-Square test on greywater reuse. 


Variables 

Village 



Ga-Nkwana 

Ga-Seroka 


n (%) 


Reuse of greywater 

41 (53%) 

58 (61%) 

Increase in the amount of food produced 

24 (31%) 

24 (25%) 

P value 

0.000 

0.000 


n: Number of respondents, %: Percentage of households, P value: 0.05, Chi- 
Square value: 52.028 a (Ga-Nkwana) and 61.772 a (Ga-Seroka) and Degree of 
Freedom: 8 (Ga-Nkwana) and 2 (Ga-Seroka). 


communities practice smallholder farming. In this study, it was ob¬ 
served that educated people did not reuse their greywater as much as 
uneducated people in both communities. Educated respondents had 
better-paying jobs as compared to the uneducated resulting in them 
having sewage in their homes whilst the uneducated reused their 
greywater onsite. Ga-Seroka village is dominated by elderly people who 
are pensioners and unemployed youth whom in most cases did not 
further their studies past the secondary education. Many of these youth 
survive on child social grants and their large household sizes still form a 
barrier between sufficiency of government safety nets and food se¬ 
curity. On the contrary, Ga-Nkwana village is dominated by the 
working class and most of the respondents have furthered their studies 
beyond secondary education, which explain the employment percen¬ 
tage of respondents. A high percentage of respondents (61%) in Ga- 
Seroka village reused their greywater after generation as compared to 
respondents (53%) in Ga-Nkwana village. Some of the reasons for such 
results are due to Ga-Seroka village respondents not having a consistent 
flow of tap water, some communal taps being far and the respondents 
having to walk long distances to access freshwater. Eventhough re¬ 
spondent in Ga-Nkwana village sometimes struggle to have running 
water, since they are closer to an area of development, they easily 
benefit from the development of new services and often receive water 
via water tankers. Respondents in Ga-Seroka village mentioned buying 
or fetching water from the river during times when their taps were dry. 
Most of the rural communities in South Africa are poverty-stricken, lack 
access to potable water supplies and rely mainly on rain and river water 
sources for their daily water needs (Dzwairo et al., 2006) and often 
their river water is shared with their livestock. According to the De¬ 
partment of Provincial and Local Government (DPLG) “municipalities 
must spend funds on the provision of infrastructure necessary to supply 
251 of potable water per person per day within 200 m of a household 
and with a minimum flow of 101 per minute (in the case of communal 
water points), or 6 0001 of potable water supplied per formal connec¬ 
tion per month (in the case of yard or house connections); or to upgrade 
and build new infrastructure up to a basic level of service in existing 
formal settlements” (DPLG, 2004-2007). 

The reason why most of the respondents (66%) in Ga-Nkwana vil¬ 
lage reused their greywater for irrigation as compared to 59% of the 
respondents in Ga-Seroka village was due to the fact that Ga-Nkwana 
village did not struggle as much as Ga-Seroka village with regard to 
access to water. This also means that the quantity of greywater gener¬ 
ated was bound to be more in Ga-Nkwana village. Home gardens have 
been a source of food for many rural households and variations in 
rainfall patterns is affecting livelihoods of many, hence the shift to 
greywater reuse. Madungwe and Sakuringwa (2007), reported that the 
uses of greywater in crop irrigation allow households the opportunity to 


5 










M.P. Radingoana, et al 


Physics and Chemistry of the Earth xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx 


grow crops during the times when water is not readily available, 
leading to less water stress and increased food security. Besides grey- 
water has nutrients which are good for plant growth (Friedler et al., 
2006; Godfrey et al., 2009; Salukazana et al., 2004). Fruit trees (spe¬ 
cifically grown up trees) have been irrigated more with greywater in 
both villages and this is due to greywater killing small plants. Irrigation 
with greywater has reduced the amount of crop-eating pests, due to its 
smell and detergents content. Greywater is a widely-used method of 
conserving freshwater, especially when climate change is affecting 
water availability. Manufacturers of detergents that are normally used 
in the households are already producing environmentally friendly de¬ 
tergents making it easier to reuse greywater onsite without any form of 
treatment (Deshmukh et al., 2014). In rural households, people directly 
reuse greywater to irrigate vegetable gardens in order to supplement 
their food with household garden produce to sustain their livelihood 
(Rodda et al, 2011). 

Fetakgomo Local Municipality does not have enough capacity to act 
as a Water Service Authority within its area of jurisdiction, therefore, 
the water service authorities and providers of the municipality are in 
the Sekhukhune District Municipality. Elevation acts as a barrier for 
water supply in both villages as some of the households are on top of 
hills or mountains. Water supply in Ga-Nkwana village does not have 
enough power to move uphill leaving those households in elevated 
areas without water from their home taps. On the other hand, Ga- 
Seroka village is a mountainous area and infrastructure that distributes 
bulk water from Lepelle Northern Water Scheme does not reach the 
area due to elevation. Furthermore, Fetakgomo Local Municipality does 
not have any greywater treatment system although other local muni¬ 
cipalities, such as Ephraim Mogale and Greater Tubatse do have such 
treatment systems. 

4.1. Implications to policy and rural livelihoods improvement 

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), specifically objective 
number 2 of the United Nations Development Plan (UNDP), aims to end 
hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition and promote sus¬ 
tainable agriculture (FAO, 2010; FAO, 2013). These goals are further 
supported by chapter 6 of the National Development Plan (NDP)-2030 
which aims at achieving an integrated and inclusive rural economy 
through the improvement of livelihoods. The plan furthermore high¬ 
lights that better integration of the country's rural areas can be achieved 
through successful job creating and poverty alleviating projects. Irri¬ 
gated agriculture, which can be supplemented by dry land production 
with an emphasis on small scale farming, which is seen as the driving 
force in combating poverty in rural areas in future. The findings of this 
study are important for policy development and are inline with the 
mandate of SDGs and NDP when coming to poverty alleviation. The 
results are also important for the formulation of greywater reuse 
guidelines especially for irrigation of food crops in South Africa. 
Through selling of surplus vegetables, the households will have more 
money for basic needs and enough healthy food to supplement the food. 
This will also help bridge the gap of men being the common providers 
at home while also creating jobs. The results of this study are also 
important for female-headed households, as they are the most vulner¬ 
able to poverty. The availability of/continuous production of vegetables 
for households all year round will mean enough healthy food to sup¬ 
plement market- bought food through the reuse of greywater, which is 
always available in abundance given the source of generation 

5. Conclusions 

The reuse of greywater for home gardening was practised more in 
Ga-Seroka village than in Ga-Nkwana village. The perceptions on 
greywater reuse in this study were different as Ga-Seroka village re¬ 
spondents preferred to reuse greywater more as compared to Ga- 
Nkwana village respondents. This is highly influenced by the lack of 


running water in Ga-Seroka village as compared to Ga-Nkwana village 
which makes greywater reuse of potential beneficial use for irrigation of 
home gardens and thus improving food security. It can be concluded 
that irrigating home gardens with greywater can improve the amount of 
produce made and thus improve household food security through 
availability. The fact that some of the plants irrigated with greywater 
did not die and the greywater killed and repelled some of the insects¬ 
eating plants could be an added advantage of reusing greywater. 

Acknowledgements 

Our sincere gratitude goes to the National Research Foundation for 
funding the study. 

Appendix A. Supplementary data 

Supplementary data to this article can be found online at https:// 
doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2019.02.009. 

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